Subspecies Guide

The Red-tailed Hawk comprises many subspecies throughout North and Central America, from the Pacific to Atlantic coasts, the tree-line in Alaska and Canada south to the forests of Panama, and the Caribbean. Our current understanding of many of these subspecies, their identification, and their distributions, is limited. As a result, with ongoing research the distinctions we outline below may change.

borealis
calurus
abieticola
alascensis
kriderii
fuertesi
harlani
fumosus
soccoroensis
umbrinus
hadropus
jamaicensis
kemseisi
solitudinus
costaricensis

Western (calurus) – polymorphic

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Eastern (borealis) – monomorphic

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Northern (abieticola) – polymorphic*

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Krider’s (kriderii) – monomorphic

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Harlan’s (harlani) – polymorphic

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Alaskan (alascensis) – monomorphic*

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umbrinus – monomorphic

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Fuertes (fuertesi) – monomorphic

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fumosus – monomorphic

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socorroensis – polymorphic

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jamaicensis – monomorphic

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solitudinus – monomorphic

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hadropus* – polymorphic

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kemsiesi – polymorphic

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costaricensis – monomorphic

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*research pending on these designations

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